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As a term of recycling, it is the recycling of recyclable waste materials that are not used as raw materials through various recycling methods.
First of all, the need for raw materials decreases as the consumed materials can be included in the recycling ring. Thus, the consumption that increases in parallel with the increase of the human population is prevented from disturbing the natural balance and damage to nature. However, the use of recyclable materials as raw materials makes it possible to save a large amount of energy. For example, the use of recyclable aluminum saves up to 35% energy compared to making aluminum from scratch.
Using waste materials as raw materials is also important in terms of preventing environmental pollution. The use of used paper in re-paper production can reduce air pollution by 74-94%, water pollution by 35% and water use by 45%. For example, cutting 8 trees can be prevented by adding one ton of waste paper to the pulp.
History of Recycling
The resource constraints caused by wars were effective in the beginning of the need for recycling. Great states, II. During World War II, they launched nationwide recycling campaigns. Citizens are particularly encouraged to collect metal and fiber materials. The recycling process in the USA has an important place in the understanding of patriotism. In fact, resource conservation programs created during the war were continued after the war in some countries with limited natural resources (such as Japan).
• Chemical waste
• Engine oil
Recycling Methods Vary For Each Material:
• Aluminum: Waste aluminum is cut into small particles. Later, these parts are melted in large furnaces and cast aluminum is produced. In this way, waste aluminum becomes almost the same as pure aluminum and can be used in production. As a result of recycling 1 ton of metal waste, 1300 kg of raw material is saved. For example; annually in Turkey has reached a total of 2 million tons.
• Concrete: Concrete pieces are collected from demolition areas and brought to where crushing machines are located. After crushing, small pieces are used as gravel in new jobs. Crushed concrete can also be used as a dry mortar for new concrete if it does not contain additives.
• Paper: Paper is primarily split into fibers in water to prepare paper mud. If necessary, it is subjected to cleaning process for non-fiber foreign substances. Sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate is used as ink separator. Then the ready-made paper fibers are used in the production of recycled paper. As a result of the recycling of 1 ton of used paper waste, 16 grown pine trees and 85 square meters of forest area will not be destroyed. For example; In Turkey, 80 million years and it may be protected 40,000 hectares of pine woodland.
• Plastic: Plastic wastes are first separated according to their types and recycled. Recyclable plastic wastes separated according to their types are broken into small pieces in crushing machines. Businesses can use these parts directly in the production process by mixing them with the original raw material in certain proportions; It can also be used as second class raw material by melting again and adding additives. As a result of recycling 1 ton of plastic packaging waste, 14000 kWh of energy is saved. For example; The amount of energy that could be saved annually in Turkey 4 million megawatt hours (MWh).
• Glass: Glass wastes (bottles, jars, etc.) are collected in collection boxes and these wastes are separated according to their colors and given to recycling facilities. Here it is separated from waste and additives. Here the glass is broken and mixed into the raw material mixture and poured into melting furnaces. In this way, it is used as glass again. Broken glass is also used as concrete additive and glazing. Around 30% recycled glass is added to the glazing. Glass can be recycled in an endless cycle in this way, without any deterioration in its structure. Recycling of 1 ton glass waste saves 100 liters of gasoline. For example; Turkey may be annual savings of 30 million liters of gasoline in the recycling of waste glass in general.